Latin - Christian Theories
For the most part, information about Babylonian, Greek
and Islamic cosmologies did not reach Latin/Christian Europe until the
end of the first millennium AD. That was when the Christians overtook Islamic
cultural centres in Spain and Portugal, discovering the Arabic versions of the
old Greek texts.
There was much re-hashing of this material, but no
real progress. Everyone was very unhappy about eccentres,
epicycles and equants, and looking for alternatives.
The Church resisted rational debate by insisting on
a cosmos based on Aristotle's views (see right) suitably made to fit with an interpretation of Genesis.
In the centre we have Earth/Water/Air/Fire, then we have each 'planet'
in it's sphere, then the firmament (fixed stars) then the "waters
above the firmament".
The fact that this did not with observation
did not seem to matter too much.